The majority of these partially exfoliated graphite materials are made by intercalation of graphite with sulfuric acid in the presence of fuming nitric acid to yield expanded graphitic material. These expanded materials are then heated to yield an increase in the c-axis direction. While these materials are sometimes referred to as "expanded graphite" or "exfoliated graphite," they are distinct from the TEGO developed at Princeton.
Material based on modified graphite is appropriate, for example, as a nanofiller for polymer composites, a conductive filler for composites, an electrode material for batteries and ultracapacitors, as a filler to improve diffusion barrier properties of polymers, and as a hydrogen storage material. The graphite nanoplatelet (GNP) material is distinct from previous graphitic materials, which lack one or more of the attributes required for a successful nanofiller.
Currently expanded graphite is used as an absorbent for oil spill remediation and for the cleanup of other hazardous organic liquid spills. The hydrophobic surfaces are wetted by oil and thereby bind and hold oil. Other compounds used for spill remediation are clays, but these must be surface treated to may them hydrophobic enough to bind organic liquids. The high surface area of TEGO and its hydrocarbon surfaces make it an excellent absorbent material for oil and organic liquids. The TEGO can be contained in large porous sacks made from polypropylene or polyethylene fabric or porous film.
The UV light absorption capabilities of TEGO make it an attractive additive to coatings that must maintain stability exposed to sunlight. Coatings include preferably black coatings. TEGO can be used as an additive for roofing sealers, caulks, elastomeric roofing membranes, and adhesives.
TEGO absorbs UV radiation and can therefore be used to impart UV protection and to improve the lifetime of plastic components in outdoor use, such as hoses, wire coatings, plastic pipe and tubing.