Separating the send and receive bands is difficult enough, but the problem is compounded by the ever-increasing number of bands in the latest devices, which handle everything wireless technology has to offer. From GPS to Bluetooth to Wi-Fi, each band requires a filter to stop the strong transmit signals from drowning out reception.
The programmability of the individual outputs allows this simultaneous summation and cancellation to be tuned across a wide range of frequencies, and to adjust to signal strength at the antenna.
Al Molnar, holding a test board with the two-way transceiver chip mounted in the center, is shown with graduate student Hazal Yüksel in Molnar's lab. Yüksel is co-lead author of the latest paper from the Molnar lab, published earlier this year in the Journal of Solid-State Circuits.
"In one direction, it's a filter and you basically get this cancellation," Apsel said. "And in the other direction, it's an amplifier."
"You put the antenna at one end and the amplified signal goes out the antenna, and you put the receiver at the other end and that's where the nulling happens," Molnar said. "Your receiver sees the antenna through this wire, the transmission line, but it doesn't see the transmit signal because it's canceling itself out at that end."
This work builds on research reported six years ago by a group from Stanford University, which devised a way for the transmitter to filter its own transmission, allowing the weaker incoming signal to be heard. It's the theory behind noise-canceling headphones.
Unlike the Stanford work, the Cornell group's subtransmitter concept will work over a range of frequencies - a positive in this age of scrambling for available frequencies that used to be the realm of over-the-air television.
"This wire is a fairly broadband structure," Molnar said. "And the thing you do to make it work over a wide range of frequencies is just control those different subgains of the transmitters to make this cancellation always happen."
Instead of needing a filter for every band, signal separation can be controlled digitally. Upgrading to the latest version would be like updating an app - as simple as downloading the latest software.
Financial support for this work came from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.
Transceiver for FDD and TDD Operation
Hazal Yüksel, Student Member, IEEE, Dong Yang, Zachariah Boynton, Changhyuk Lee, Member, IEEE,Thomas Tapen, Alyosha Molnar, Member, IEEE, and Alyssa Apsel, Senior Member, IEEE