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Thursday, September 1, 2016

Dwarf Planet Quaoar Spotted by New Horizons Probe

NASA’s New Horizons is doing some sightseeing along the way, as the spacecraft speeds toward a New Year’s Day 2019 date with an ancient object in the distant region beyond Pluto known as 2014 MU69.

New Horizons recently observed the Kuiper Belt object Quaoar (“Kwa-war”), which – at 690 miles or 1,100 kilometers in diameter – is roughly half the size of Pluto. This animated sequence shows composite images taken by New Horizons’ Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) at four different times over July 13-14: “A” on July 13 at 02:00 Universal Time; “B” on July 13 at 04:08 UT; “C” on July 14 at 00:06 UT; and “D” on July 14 at 02:18 UT. Each composite includes 24 individual LORRI images, providing a total exposure time of 239 seconds and making the faint object easier to see.

Credits: NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI

New Horizons’ location in the Kuiper Belt gives the spacecraft a uniquely oblique view of the small planets like Quaoar orbiting so far from the sun. When these images were taken, Quaoar was approximately 4 billion miles (6.4 billion kilometers) from the sun and 1.3 billion miles (2.1 billion kilometers) from New Horizons. With the oblique view available from New Horizons, LORRI sees only a portion of Quaoar’s illuminated surface, which is very different from the nearly fully illuminated view of the Kuiper Belt object from Earth. Comparing Quaoar from the two very different perspectives gives mission scientists a valuable opportunity to study the light-scattering properties of Quaoar’s surface.
 
Astronomers Michael Brown and Chadwick Trujillo of the California Institute of Technology, dubbed Kuiper Belt object 2002 LM60 "Quaoar" after a Native American god. It lies a billion kilometers beyond Pluto and moves around the Sun every 288 years in a near-perfect circle. Until recently it was just a curious point of light. That's all astronomers could see when they discovered it in June 2002 using a ground-based telescope.
Credit: NASA

Quaoar was a creation god of the Native American Tongva tribe--the original inhabitants of the Los Angeles basin where Caltech is located. According to legend, Quaoar "came down from heaven; and, after reducing chaos to order, laid out the world on the back of seven giants. He then created the lower animals, and then mankind."

Like the planet Pluto, Quaoar dwells in the Kuiper Belt, an icy debris field of comet-like bodies extending 5 billion kilometers beyond Neptune's orbit. Over the past decade more than 500 icy bodies--Kuiper-Belt Objects or "KBOs" for short--have been found there. With a few exceptions all have been significantly smaller than Pluto.

Previous record holders are a KBO called Varuna, and an object called 2002 AW197, each approximately 540 miles across (900 kilometers). Those diameters were deduced by measuring the objects' temperatures and calculating a size based on assumptions about the KBOs' reflectivity. Such estimates are less certain than Hubble's direct measurements.

In addition to many background stars, two far away galaxies – IC 1048 and UGC 09485, each about 370 billion times farther from New Horizons than Quaoar – are also visible in these images. Unlike the galaxies and stars, Quaoar appears to move across the background scene due to its much closer distance. Other objects which appear to move in these images are camera artifacts.

In June the New Horizons mission received the go-ahead to fly onward to 2014 MU69 -- considered one of the early building blocks of the solar system -- with a planned rendezvous of Jan. 1, 2019.




Contacts and sources:
Tricia Talbert
NASA

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