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Thursday, September 13, 2012

"Aliens" Run Rampart In Europe

The key catalogue of information on ‘alien’ (non-native) species in Europe has undergone a major update. The DAISIE (Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventory for Europe) database allows the public and policymakers to get a comprehensive overview of which alien species are present in Europe, their impacts and consequences for the environment and society.

Arion vulgaris
Large, 7-15 cm long, polyphagous slug feeding on a wide range of green plants, on decayed organic matter and animal carcasses; color variable, usually grayish-green

The DAISIE on-line database, which is relaunched today at the NEOBIOTA conference in Pontevedra, Spain, contains details of over 12,000 alien species. Information collated by DAISIE plays an increasingly important role in tackling the threat of alien species within Europe which has been highlighted as a priority action in policies at all levels from national to global including the Convention on Biological Diversity Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 (Aichi Target 9).

Micropterus dolomieu commonly known as smallmouth bass is a freshwater, benthopelagic species. It inhabits shallow rocky areas of lakes, clear and gravel-bottom runs and flowing pools of rivers, cool flowing streams and reservoirs fed by such streams. Its young feed on plankton and immature aquatic insects while adults take in crayfish, fishes, and aquatic and terrestrial insects (FishBase 2012).
Credit:  DAISIE 

 The DAISIE project began in 2005 with funding from the European Union and is now supported by the NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology in the UK and the Swiss Sciex programme in collaboration with a consortium of alien species experts from across Europe. In recent months details of over 1000 new species have been added to the database by experts from across Europe, and many other species entries have been updated with the latest information.

DAISIE contributor Dr Franz Essl, from Environment Agency Austria, said, “The DAISIE-portal has become the prime source on the state of the growing threat of biological invasions in Europe. The launch of the updated version of the DAISIE-portal providing lots of new information and new search tools makes it even more relevant – for scientists, conservation managers, and decision makers.“

DAISIE information helps in monitoring and assessing emerging threats from new arrivals, such as the northwards expansion across Europe of the Asian Hornet, and current changes in locations of the grey squirrel in Southern Europe.

DAISIE co-coordinator, Dr Helen Roy, from the NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, said, “The freely available, high quality, information on the DAISIE website is key to underpinning decision-making on alien and invasive alien species across Europe and beyond. The project is successful because a dedicated group of experts from across Europe take time to contribute, maintain and update the species information in DAISIE. This pan-European collaboration within the project is critical to addressing the threat of invasive alien species, considered one of the greatest threats to biodiversity, now and in the future.”

The DAISIE inventory currently contains details of over 12,000 species (986 Aquatic marine, 669 Aquatic inland, 2740 Terrestrial invertebrates, 400 Terrestrial vertebrates, 6658 Terrestrial plants, 724 Terrestrial fungi). The majority of the alien species currently listed in the DAISIE database are not harmful. Where impacts have been assessed, around 15 % are known to cause economic damages and around 15 % are known to cause harm to biological diversity (environment, habitats and native plants, animals and micro-organisms).
Here is a list of the top invading species found in Europe.

Acacia dealbata

Magnoliophyta» Magnoliophyta» Rosopsida» Fabales» Fabaceae» Acacia dealbata
This fast growing tree can reach up to 30m in height. Leaves are greyish-green and segmented, leaf axis has glands only at the insertion of the pinnae. Flower heads are 5-6mm in diameter, pale yellow. Legume is compressed, scarcely constricted betwee...

Aedes albopictus

Insecta» Arthropoda» Insecta» diptera» culicidae» Aedes albopictus
Mosquito with a black adult body with conspicuous white stripes. Females are active during the day and are blood-feeders on vertebrates, biting primarily humans and other mammals, but also birds, batracians and reptiles....

Ailanthus altissima

Magnoliophyta» Magnoliophyta» Rosopsida» Sapindales» Simaroubaceae» Ailanthus altissima
This fast growing deciduous tree, 8-10 m high, has large compound leaves, composed of 11- 25 leaflets that alternate along the stems. Fruits are very distinctive for their long samaras forming large bunches, turning reddish in summer.

Alexandrium catenella

Dinophyta» Dinozoa» Dinophyceae» Gonyaulacales» Goniodomataceae» Alexandrium catenella
It is an armoured, marine, planktonic dinoflagellate typically occurring in characteristic short chains of 2, 4 or 8 cells, swimming together in a snake-like fashion. Single cells are almost round, 20-48 µm in length and 18-32 µm in width....

Ambrosia artemisiifolia

Magnoliophyta» Magnoliophyta» Rosopsida» Asterales» Asteraceae» Ambrosia artemisiifolia
Summer monoecious annual plant 0.2 - 2.5 m tall. The male flowers (2-4mm) are grouped in racemes at the end of branches, while female flowers are located at the bases of upper leaves. It produces a woody reddish-brown indehiscent fruit (akenes) with ...

Anguillicola crassus

Nematoda» Nematoda» Secernentea» Spirurida» Anguillicolidae» Anguillicola crassus
This is a parasite nematode often 3cm in length that can only be noticed by opening up the body cavity of the freshwater eel. It has a large girth and a transparent outer skin that allows the inner organs to be seen. ...

Anoplophora chinensis

Insecta» Arthropoda» Insecta» coleoptera» cerambycidae» Anoplophora chinensis
Large, 21- 37 mm long, stout beetle with shiny black elytra marked with 10- 12 white round spots; long antennae basally marked with white or light blue bands; polyphagous insect attacking over 100 species of broadleaved trees and shrubs; of major con...

Anoplophora glabripennis

Insecta» Arthropoda» Insecta» coleoptera» cerambycidae» Anoplophora glabripennis
Large, stout beetle, 20-35 mm long with a jet-black body with white spots on the elytra; the antennae are longer than the body, black with blue rings at segment base. It is a xylophagous species, feeding on a wide range of deciduous trees, mostly spe...

Aphanomyces astaci

Chromista» Oomycota» Oomycetes» Saprolegniales» Leptolegniaceae» Aphanomyces astaci
This Oomycete pseudofungus is the aetiologic agent for the disease which is known as crayfish plague. Crayfish plague is a disease which, as an acute disease, has only created problems in Europe, not in the native range of North America where crayfis...

Aphis gossypii

Insecta» Arthropoda» Insecta» Hemiptera» Aphididae» Aphis gossypii
Small aphid, about 2mm long, phloem-feeding with two virginiparous forms. Winged and wingless, highly variable in colour from yellowish green to partly black; immature stages (nymphs) pale yellow to pale green. It is a highly polyphagous species, maj...

Arion vulgaris

Mollusca» Mollusca» Gastropoda» Stylommatophora» Arionidae» Arion vulgaris
Large, 7-15 cm long, polyphagous slug feeding on a wide range of green plants, on decayed organic matter and animal carcasses; color variable, usually grayish-green...

Balanus improvisus

Crustacea» Arthropoda» Maxillopoda» Sessilia» Balanidae» Balanus improvisus
This sessile crustacean has a white and conical shell (up to 17 mm in diameter and 10 mm in height) with a diamond-shaped slightly toothed opening. It occurs in marine and brackish environments and filter feeds on detritus and phytoplankton....

Bemisia tabaci

Insecta» Arthropoda» Insecta» hemiptera» aleyrodidae» Bemisia tabaci
Small, about 1 mm long, sap-sucking insect with two pairs of white wings (whitefly) with a white to light yellow body, covered with waxy powdery material. Larvae (nymphs) are also sap-sucking, feeding on a very wide range of plants (> 900 spp.). This...

Bonnemaisonia hamifera

Rhodophyta» Rhodophyta» Rhodophyceae» Bonnemaisoniales» Bonnemaisoniaceae» Bonnemaisonia hamifera
This red macroalgae occurs in marine waters....

Brachidontes pharaonis

Mollusca» Mollusca» Bivalvia» Mytiloida» Mytilidae» Brachidontes pharaonis
A small gregarious intertidal bivalve with a 40 mm shell, externally dark brown-black and internally tinged violet-black. Equivalve, inequilateral, attached to substrate by stout byssus. Outline mussel-like with terminal umbones but variable in shape...

Branta canadensis

Aves» Chordata» Aves» Anseriformes» Anatidae» Branta canadensis
A large grey-brown goose inhabiting terrestrial and freshwater habitats. Omnivorous, feeding mostly on plant materials, rhizomes, stems, leaves, seeds and fruit. Distinguished by a black head, neck and tail with a large white chin strap....

Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

Nematoda» Nematoda» Secernentea» null» null» Bursaphelenchus xylophilus
Small, 0.5-1.3 mm long, slender nematode, infesting wood and causing pine wilt disease. The nematode is known to be vectored by insects, especially long-horned beetles of the genus Monochamus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Feeds on fungal hyphae ...

Cameraria ohridella

Insecta» Arthropoda» Insecta» Lepidoptera» Gracillariidae» Cameraria ohridella
Tiny moth, 3-5mm long with phytophagous larvae, mining leaves of white-flowered horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum); can also develop on other Aesculus species and occasionally on maple. ...

Campylopus introflexus

Bryophyta» Bryophyta» Bryopsida» Dicranales» Dicranaceae» Campylopus introflexus
A moss with leaves tapering to a long, whitish hair-point. When plants dry the leaves become crisp, twisting slightly round the stem (5 cm long), with the hair-points bent at right angles, horizontally outwards. The capsules are produced in spring, o...

Carpobrotus edulis

Magnoliophyta» Magnoliophyta» Rosopsida» Caryophyllales» Aizoaceae» Carpobrotus edulis
Succulent, trailing perennial, rooting at nodes and forming large, dense mats. Leaves are opposite, 3-angled. Flowers (8-10 cm in diameter) are large, solitary, yellow, pinkish-purple or purple with numerous petals and stamens. In the Mediterranean b...

Caulerpa racemosa

Chlorophyta» Chlorophyta» Bryopsidophyceae» Bryopsidales» Caulerpaceae» Caulerpa racemosa
A green macroalgae with slender thallus, lacking large rhizoidal pillars, basal part of the upright axes slightly inflated immediately above the attachment to the stolon, clavate branchlets, uncrowded and radially to distichously disposed. ...

Caulerpa taxifolia

Chlorophyta» Chlorophyta» Bryopsidophyceae» Bryopsidales» Caulerpaceae» Caulerpa taxifolia
A green macroalga with upright leaf-like fronds arising from creeping stolons. The fronds are compressed laterally and the small side branchlets are constricted at the base (where they attach to the midrib of each frond), are opposite in their attach...

Ceratitis capitata

Insecta» Arthropoda» Insecta» diptera» tephritidae» Ceratitis capitata
Small fly, 4- 5 mm long. The adults have a yellowish body with brown abdomen and legs and have yellow bands on the wings. The larva, 6- 8 mm long at maturity, is typically elongated, cream coloured, and has a cylindrical maggot shape. Development is ...

Cercopagis pengoi

Crustacea» Arthropoda» Branchiopoda» Diplostraca» Cercopagididae» Cercopagis pengoi
A water flea with body size up to 2 mm and caudal process with length up to 10 mm. The head is essentially composed of a large single eye, where the amount of black pigment makes less than one half of the diameter of the eye. Parthenogenic females of...

Cervus nippon

Mammalia» Chordata» Mammalia» Artiodactyla» Cervidae» Cervus nippon
Small to medium-sized deer. Adult males are larger than females (weight: females 25-45 kg, males 40-110; height at shoulder 950-1400 cm). Relatively simple antlers. Summer coat is chestnut or fawn, marked with distinct white spots. The most distincti...

Chattonella cf.

Other algae» Heterokontophyta» Raphidophyceae» Raphidomonadales» Vacuolariaceae» Chattonella cf.
This small phytoplankton alga is found in brackish and marine waters. There is a controversial discussion on the species determination and its correct taxonomic group. Some experts believe that this species should belong to the group dictyophyte. Fur...

Codium fragile

Chlorophyta» Chlorophyta» Bryopsidophyceae» Bryopsidales» Codiaceae» Codium fragile
A large marine green algae that may attain 1 m in length. The cylindrical branches of the algae branch dichotomously, anchored to the substrate in a spongy basal holdfast....

Corbicula fluminea

Mollusca» Mollusca» Bivalvia» Veneroida» Corbiculidae» Corbicula fluminea
Inland water filter feeding bivalve with a globular shell. Has the capability of collecting food in sediments with its extendable foot. It has tan to brown, ridged solid shells. They occur in large numbers in sediments and are usually <3cm .="." br="br" europ...="europ..." in="in">
Cordylophora caspia

Cnidaria» Cnidaria» Hydrozoa» Hydroida» Clavidae» Cordylophora caspia
This colonial hydroid (up to 10 cm high) light brown in colour occurs in brackish waters, branching occasionally from alternate sides. Branches are ringed at the base and have terminal polyps with colourless, extensile tentacles that are 12-16 long. ...

Cortaderia selloana

Magnoliophyta» Magnoliophyta» Liliopsida» Poales» Poaceae» Cortaderia selloana
An erect perennial, tussock grass, up to 2-4 meters tall. It has large (1-3 meters), deep green, attenuate leaves with serrulate margins. Inflorescences consist of several large nodding plumose panicles. It flowers from August to December....

Coscinodiscus wailesii

Other algae» Heterokontophyta» Coscinodiscophyceae» Coscinodiscales» Coscinodiscaceae» Coscinodiscus wailesii
This very large centric diatom, typically 175-500 µm in diameter, is a primary producer in brackish and marine waters.

Crassostrea gigas

Mollusca» Mollusca» Bivalvia» Ostreoida» Ostreidae» Crassostrea gigas
The Pacific oyster is a filter-feeder consuming phytoplankton and detritus in coastal brackish and marine waters. The two elongated valves are variable in shape and size with wild settling individuals cemented by one valve to a firm substrate. The le...

Crassula helmsii

Magnoliophyta» Magnoliophyta» Rosopsida» Saxifragales» Crassulaceae» Crassula helmsii
A small succulent flowering perennial that grows rapidly to form an extensive lush-green "carpet" that floats on freshwater or may be submerged. Growth can extend from margins of sheltered waterbodies to completely cover the water surface with tangle...

Crepidula fornicata

Mollusca» Mollusca» Gastropoda» Neotaenioglossa» Calyptraeidae» Crepidula fornicata
The slipper limpet is a snail with an asymmetrical shell with an inner shelf. It can attain 5cm. It is a filter feeder occurring within sheltered coastal bays and estuaries and sometimes in deeper water. It attaches firmly to objects with its muscul...

Diabrotica virgifera

Insecta» Arthropoda» Insecta» coleoptera» chrysomelidae» Diabrotica virgifera
Small beetle, 5-6 mm long, with a basic pale greenish-yellow body coloration. The larvae are wrinkled, yellowish-white, with a brown head capsule. It is a major crop pest on maize (Zea mays). It has been repeatedly introduced to Europe from No...

Dikerogammarus villosus

Crustacea» Arthropoda» Malacostraca» Amphipoda» Gammaridae» Dikerogammarus villosus
The killer shrimp is an omnivorous predator. It can feed on a variety of macroinvertebrates, including other gammarid species, and exhibits an important biotic potential and ecological plasticity. ...

Dreissena polymorpha

Mollusca» Mollusca» Bivalvia» Veneroida» Dreissenidae» Dreissena polymorpha
Sessile bivalve mollusc, forming dense colonies on various hard substrates in fresh and slightly brackish waters. It has brownish-yellowish triangular shells (up to 50 mm) with dark and light coloured ("zebra") zigzag banding. It is a filter feeder o...

Echinocystis lobata

Magnoliophyta» Magnoliophyta» Rosopsida» Cucurbitales» Cucurbitaceae» Echinocystis lobata
This annual growing vine can climb up to 12 m. It is a very fast growing plant, producing many branches at a fast rate. It germinates in May, flowers from July to September and leaves die in October. The flowers are monoecious and greenish to white. ...

Elodea canadensis

Magnoliophyta» Magnoliophyta» Liliopsida» Alismatales» Hydrocharitaceae» Elodea canadensis
It is an aquatic herb with branching stems 20-30 cm long, which tends to form dense monospecific stands that can cover hundreds of acres. Leaves are oblong-linear in groups of three. Flowers are white or pale purple appear at the water surface. Fruit...

Ensis americanus

Mollusca» Mollusca» Bivalvia» Veneroida» Pharidae» Ensis americanus
The red-brown bivalves (up to 16-17 cm in length) occur in muddy or fine sand, marine and brackish waters. It prefers the lower zone of the intertidal areas, where they burrow into the sediment and filter-feed on algae....

Eriocheir sinensis

Crustacea» Arthropoda» Malacostraca» Decapoda» Varunidae» Eriocheir sinensis
This small crab has a carapax that might may reach 5 cm and are usually brownish in colour. A characteristic feature is the mitten like "fur" on the claws. The Chinese mitten crab is an omnivorous predator. The diet of the crabs includes a wide range...

Fallopia japonica

Magnoliophyta» Magnoliophyta» Rosopsida» Caryophyllales» Polygonaceae» Fallopia japonica
Herbaceous perennials with robust erect stems up to 4 m tall and extensive system of rhizomes, 15-20 m long, penetrating 2-3 m deep in soil. The invasive knotweeds in Europe include Fallopia japonica var. japonica, F. sachalinensis, ...

Ficopomatus enigmaticus

Annelida» Annelida» Polychaeta» Canalipalpata» Serpulidae» Ficopomatus enigmaticus
This is a small worm that forms concretions with their calcareous interlacing tubes. They are seston feeders in brackish to hypersaline sheltered environments, usually estuaries and lagoons....

Fistularia commersonii

Osteichthyes» Chordata» Actinopterygii» Syngnathiformes» Fistularidae» Fistularia commersonii
A marine, mainly piscivorous fish with a grey to olive-green body, commonly 20-100 cm long (max. 150 cm). The body is extremely elongated, the head is more than 1/3 of SL, snout tubular, ending in small mouth. Dorsal and anal fins are posterior in po...

Frankliniella occidentalis

Insecta» Arthropoda» Insecta» thysanoptera» thripidae» Frankliniella occidentalis
Tiny, slender insect with narrow fringed wings. Males, 1.2–1.3 mm long, are pale yellow, with a narrow abdomen rounded at the end. Females, 1.6-1.7 mm long, are yellow to brown, with a more rounded abdomen ending in a point. Nymphs (larvae) are yello...

Gyrodactylus salaris

Platyhelminthes» Platyhelminthes» Trematoda» Monopisthocotylea» Gyrodactylidae» Gyrodactylus salaris
This is a very small worm parasite (<1mm ...="..." and="and" attaches="attaches" be="be" body="body" br="br" can="can" damages="damages" family.="family." fish="fish" gills="gills" heavily="heavily" in="in" infections.="infections." infested="infested" is="is" it="it" its="its" lead="lead" noticed.="noticed." of="of" outer="outer" presence="presence" salmon="salmon" skin="skin" that="that" the="the" there="there" this="this" to="to" unless="unless" unlikely="unlikely" which="which" will="will">
Halophila stipulacea

Magnoliophyta» Magnoliophyta» Liliopsida» Alismatales» Hydrocharitaceae» Halophila stipulacea
A euryhaline marine angiosperm (seagrass). Plants are dioecious with male and female flowers produced at each leaf node. Rhizomes are creeping, branched and fleshy, and roots appear solitary at each node of the rhizome, unbranched and thick with dens...

Harmonia axyridis

Insecta» Arthropoda» Insecta» coleoptera» coccinellidae» Harmonia axyridis
Polyphagous predatory ladybird, 5-8 mm long, very variable in colour pattern (yellow to orange to black) with a very variable number of spots (0-21)....

Hedychium gardnerianum

Magnoliophyta» Magnoliophyta» Liliopsida» Zingiberales» Zingiberaceae» Hedychium gardnerianum
A large leafy herb that can reach between1 and 3 m in height. Lance-shaped leaves arise off stems or basal stock. Fragrant yellow flowers are borne in long 25-30cm spikes. Red stamens are not present in the more cream coloured flowers of yellow ginge...

Heracleum mantegazzianum

Magnoliophyta» Magnoliophyta» Rosopsida» Apiales» Apiaceae» Heracleum mantegazzianum
It is monocarpic perennial, which persists several (usually 3-5) years in rosette stage, with leaves up to 2.5m long. After reaching the mature stage it flowers and dies. The flowering stem can be up to 5m high and bears large umbels with small white...

Impatiens glandulifera

Magnoliophyta» Magnoliophyta» Rosopsida» Ericales» Balsaminaceae» Impatiens glandulifera
A green vascular annual plant up to 2.5m tall with large pink to purple flowers and green fruits around 5 cm long. Usually grows in riparian habitats and in other disturbed places with good water and nutrient supply....

Leptinotarsa decemlineata

Insecta» Arthropoda» Insecta» coleoptera» chrysomelidae» Leptinotarsa decemlineata
Adult beetles up to 11 mm long. The elytra are yellow with 10 characteristic black longitudinal bands....

Linepithema humile

Insecta» Arthropoda» Insecta» hymenoptera» formicidae» Linepithema humile
Ant of light brown colour; females are 4.5-4.9 mm long and workers 2.1-3.0mm long. They are omnivorous, feeding on honeydew, nectar, insects and carrion. ...

Liriomyza huidobrensis

Insecta» Arthropoda» Insecta» diptera» agromyzidae» Liriomyza huidobrensis
Adult small, 1.3-2.3 mm long, compact-bodied fly, of greyish-black colour; larvae headless maggot up to 3.3 mm in length, yellow-orange at maturity. Larvae are leaf miners on a wide range of hosts, especially economically-important vegetables and orn...

Lithobates catesbeianus

Amphibia» Chordata» Amphibia» Anura» Ranidae» Lithobates catesbeianus
It is the largest North-American ranid. In its natural range, adults can reached at most a 184 mm snout-vent length (Louisiana), while in Europe (southwestern France), adults may exceed a 195 mm snout-vent length, with an average weight of approximat...

Marenzelleria neglecta

Annelida» Annelida» Polychaeta» Spionida» Spionidae» Marenzelleria neglecta
The red-gilled mud worms (up to 157 mm in length) occur in marine and brackish waters. They inhabit vertical mucus lined burrows (up to 40 cm in depth), feeding on sediment particles, meiobenthic and planktonic organisms.

Marsupenaeus japonicus

Crustacea» Arthropoda» Malacostraca» Decapoda» Penaeidae» Marsupenaeus japonicus
A nocturnal prawn (TL males: 17 cm, females: 27 cm) adults buried in substrate during daytime. The body is pale bearing uninterrupted brown transverse bands; walking legs and pleopods are pale yellow proximally and blue distally; uropods are distally...

Mnemiopsis leidyi

Ectoprocta» Ctenophora» Tentaculata» Lobata» Bolinopsidae» Mnemiopsis leidyi
A comb jelly, length up to 100 mm. The body is laterally compressed, it has four rows of small ciliated combs which are iridescent by day and may glow green by night. The colour is usually transparent or slightly milky and translucent. Feeds on holop...

Musculista senhousia

Mollusca» Mollusca» Bivalvia» Mytiloida» Mytilidae» Musculista senhousia
A small (10-25 x 12 mm) intertidal bivalve with thin shell, equivalve, oval, elongate with sculpture of radiating lines posteriorly. Outline modioliform; umbones subterminal; ligament and dorsal margins not continuous, slightly angled; anterior end r...

Mustela vison

Mammalia» Chordata» Mammalia» Carnivora» Mustelidae» Mustela vison
Small, semi-aquatic carnivore living in freshwater and marine habitats. It is a generalist and opportunist predator with a variable diet that includes aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial prey....

Myocastor coypus

Mammalia» Chordata» Mammalia» Rodentia» Myocastoridae» Myocastor coypus
Large semi-aquatic rodent that lives along rivers, lakes, and marshes. The weight is often between 2-4 kg but adult males can reach 7-8 kg. Superficially it is rat-like, with short legs and a long cylindrical tail, the first four digits of the hind f...

Neogobius melanostomus

Osteichthyes» Chordata» Actinopterygii» Perciformes» Gobiidae» Neogobius melanostomus
It is a small, soft-bodied fish, with a fused pelvic fin that forms a suction disk on the ventral surface. The body is brownish grey with dark brown lateral spots. Mature males are completely black during spawning and nest guarding, with yellowish sp...

Nyctereutes procyonoides

Mammalia» Chordata» Mammalia» Carnivora» Canidae» Nyctereutes procyonoides
A fox-sized mammal with short legs and tail and a typical black face with long hair on cheeks. This omnivorous carnivore is the only canid with winter lethargy....

Odontella sinensis

Other algae» Heterokontophyta» Coscinodiscophyceae» Triceratiales» Triceratiaceae» Odontella sinensis
This phytoplankton species is known to form mass developments (plankton blooms)....

Ondatra zibethicus

Mammalia» Chordata» Mammalia» Rodentia» Muridae» Ondatra zibethicus
Large (410-620 mm; weight 680-1800 g), stocky aquatic rodent with large head, small eyes, very short rounded ears. Dark brown, with underside slightly paler in colour. Tail as long as the head and body (180-295 mm), hairless and flattened laterally. ...

Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

Fungi» Ascomycota » Sordariomycetes» Ophiostomatales» Ophiostomataceae» Ophiostoma novo-ulmi
Two destructive pandemics of Dutch Elm Disease occurred in the 20th century, caused by two closely related micro-fungi. Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, initially termed the aggressive subgroup of O. ulmi sensu lato, was responsible for the...

Opuntia ficus-indica

Magnoliophyta» Magnoliophyta» Rosopsida» Caryophyllales» Cactaceae» Opuntia ficus-indica
This cactus can reach up to 2 m height. Succulent stems are flat, oval and segmented. Flowers 5-6 cm in diameter are orange. Fruits have the size and shape of a fig and are purple. It has a CAM physiology with very high water-use efficiency. ...

Oxalis pes-caprae

Magnoliophyta» Magnoliophyta» Rosopsida» Oxalidales» Oxalidaceae» Oxalis pes-caprae
A short perennial herb forming large clonal colonies reproducing by annual bulbs. Flowering takes place between January and March, and is synchronous across the colony, producing spectacular displays of 1-5 pedicels with large cup-shaped bright yello...

Oxyura jamaicensis

Aves» Chordata» Aves» Anseriformes» Anatidae» Oxyura jamaicensis
A small diving duck inhabiting freshwater habitats. Omnivorous, feeding on molluscs, insects and their larvae especially chironomid larvae, but also on seeds and parts of water plants. Distinguished by a long, sometimes erect tail characteristic of ...

Paralithodes camtschaticus

Crustacea» Arthropoda» Malacostraca» Decapoda» Lithodidae» Paralithodes camtschaticus
This very large crab is an omnivorous predator and grows up to > 220 mm carapace and a span from leg to leg up to 1.4 m. A weight of >10 kg may be reached....

Paspalum paspaloides

Magnoliophyta» Monocotyledonae» Cyperales» Poaceae» null» Paspalum paspaloides
It is a creeping stoloniferous perennial herb, up to 50 cm tall; leaves are stiff, narrow, about 10 cm in length, with sheaths ciliate on margin (Clayton 1994). Usually every inflorescence has two racemes 1.5-7 cm, with ovate, pale-green spikelets. T...

Percnon gibbesi

Crustacea» Arthropoda» Malacostraca» Decapoda» Plagusiidae» Percnon gibbesi
An agile, aposomatic mimetic crab. The carapace is 3 cm in diameter and brownish, it has golden yellow rings on joints of walking legs. Carapace disc-like, with tridentate front and antero-lateral margins with four acute teeth. All walking legs have ...

Phytophthora cinnamomi

Chromista» Oomycota» Oomycetes» Pythiales» Pythiaceae» Phytophthora cinnamomi
This fungus-like organism is a soil-borne pathogen causing disease on many woody hosts. Primary infections in the root system result in two main types of (visible) symptoms: bleeding cankers on trunks and/or crown symptoms (little leaves, yellowing, ...

Pinctada radiata

Mollusca» Mollusca» Bivalvia» Pterioida» Pteriidae» Pinctada radiata
A large bivalve, length commonly 50-65 mm, up to 106 mm. The shell is compressed, inequivalve with the outline almost quadrate. The shell is brownish with shades of red, inner surface pearly. The dorsal margin is longer than the body of shell and the...

Portunus pelagicus

Crustacea» Arthropoda» Malacostraca» Decapoda» Portunidae» Portunus pelagicus
A medium-sized marine nocturnal crab (CL males: 7 cm, females: 6.5 cm), carapace greenish-brown with irregular pale mottling edged dark brown, chelipeds are purplish, mottled and fingers blue. Carapace broad, with transverse granulate lines. The fron...

Procambarus clarkii

Crustacea» Arthropoda» Malacostraca» Decapoda» Cambaridae» Procambarus clarkii
Crayfish with total body length (TL) up to 15 cm. Adults are usually dark red, orange, or reddish brown. Chelae are red on both surfaces, typically S-shaped and covered in spines and tubercles. Females have the seminal receptacle located between base...

Procyon lotor

Mammalia» Chordata» Mammalia» Carnivora» Procyonidae» Procyon lotor
This cat-sized omnivore, mostly nocturnal carnivore, with its black and white face, can live in almost all terrestrial habitats. It has a distinct sense of touch and an excellent climbing and swimming ability....

Prunus serotina

Magnoliophyta» Magnoliophyta» Rosopsida» Rosales» Rosaceae» Prunus serotina
This tree can reach up to 35 m in height. Leaves are entire and shiny. Flowers are white and organized in an oblong-cylindrical raceme 10-15 cm long. Fruits are blackberries, about 8 mm in diameter. Wood and fruits are used commercially. ...

Pseudorasbora parva

Osteichthyes» Chordata» Actinopterygii» Cypriniformes» Cyprinidae» Pseudorasbora parva
This zooplanktivorous fish has an elongated body, slightly flattened on sides, resembling that of the species of the genusGobio. Maximum size up to 110 mm, though most individuals are 80-90 mm in length and 17.1-19.2 g in body mass. The color...

Psittacula krameri

Aves» Chordata» Aves» Psittaciformes» Psittacidae» Psittacula krameri
This pale yellow-green parakeet with a distinguishing long tail lives in tropical and subtropical lightly wooded habitats feeding mainly on seeds, fruit, flowers and nectar. Males have a black and rose-red ring encircling their throat....

Rapana venosa

Mollusca» Mollusca» Gastropoda» Sorbeoconcha» Muricidae» Rapana venosa
A large marine and brackish water Asian gastropod with voracious predatory behaviour. Shell lengths of individuals caught in the Adriatic Sea ranged from 67.0 mm to 136.7 mm and the total weight (shell+body wet weight) from 46.0 g to 553.9 g....

Rattus norvegicus

Mammalia» Chordata» Mammalia» Rodentia» Muridae» Rattus norvegicus
The Norway rat is an omnivorous and opportunistic terrestrial rodent. Mostly grey or brown, adults may weigh more than 500 g (230-550) with a body length of 190-265 mm and a tail length of 160-205 mm. Its albino form is used in laboratories and bred ...

Rhododendron ponticum

Magnoliophyta» Magnoliophyta» Rosopsida» Ericales» Ericaceae» Rhododendron ponticum
This evergreen shrub is densely branched growing to 5m. Flowers, borne in racemes of 10-15, are violet to purple. Pollination by insects results in the production of numerous small seeds within a woody capsule....

Rhopilema nomadica

Cnidaria» Cnidaria» Scyphozoa» Rhizostomeae» Rhizostomatidae» Rhopilema nomadica
A neritic epipelagic, swarming jellyfish, planktotroph. The bell is up to 90 cm in diameter, commonly 40-60 cm. The body is light blue, bell rounded, with blunt tuberculation of the exumbrella. The mouth arms end in vermicular filaments. ...

Robinia pseudoacacia

Magnoliophyta» Magnoliophyta» Rosopsida» Fabales» Fabaceae» Robinia pseudoacacia
This deciduous N-fixing tree can reach up to 30 m in height. The bark is thick, deeply furrowed and has stipular spines on the twigs. It has alternate leaves, pinnately compound. The inflorescence is a pendant large raceme of white highly scented flo...

Rosa rugosa

Magnoliophyta» Magnoliophyta» Rosopsida» Rosales» Rosaceae» Rosa rugosa
It is a small sprouting shrub that forms dense thickets, mainly in coastal habitats. The surface of the leaves is wrinkled, dark green, smooth above while pubescent and slightly sticky underneath. The twigs are stout and covered with thin, straight s...

Salvelinus fontinalis

Osteichthyes» Chordata» Actinopterygii» Salmoniformes» Salmonidae» Salvelinus fontinalis
This salmonid predatory fish has a long, streamlined body with a large mouth that extends past the eye. Colour variations include olive, blue-grey, or black above with a silvery white belly and wormlike markings (vermiculations) along the back. They ...

Saurida undosquamis

Osteichthyes» Chordata» Actinopterygii» Aulopiformes» Synodontidae» Saurida undosquamis
A marine, mainly piscivorous fish, commonly 15 - 35 cm long (max. 40 cm). The body is brown-beige on the back with a silvery white belly, and a series of 7-10 dark spots along the lateral line. The body is slender and cylindrical; the head is slightl...

Sciurus carolinensis

Mammalia» Chordata» Mammalia» Rodentia» Sciuridae» Sciurus carolinensis
Medium sized tree squirrel, with no sexual dimorphism in size or coloration. Body-head length 380-525 mm; tail 150-250 mm. Adults weigh 480-650 g. Dorsal grey to pale grey, with cinnamon tones. Ears pale grey to white; tail white to pale grey. Melani...

Seiridium cardinale

Fungi» Ascomycota » Sordariomycetes» Xylariales» Amphisphaeriaceae» Seiridium cardinale
Seiridium cardinale is a micro-fungus that causes a lethal canker disease on cypress and other related conifers. The first evidence of the disease is a browning or reddening of the live bark around the point of entry of the pathogen. Subsequen...

Siganus rivulatus

Osteichthyes» Chordata» Actinopterygii» Perciformes» Siganidae» Siganus rivulatus
A demersal, gregarious, herbivorous fish commonly 5-25 cm long (max. 27 cm). The oval body, laterally compressed, has a grey-green to brown back, a light-brown to yellow abdomen and fine yellow lines on each side. It has a small first dorsal spine di...

Spartina anglica

Magnoliophyta» Magnoliophyta» Liliopsida» Poales» Poaceae» Spartina anglica
A coarse-leaved grass of ~1m in height. It colonizes the upper tidal level of estuaries and lagoons. They form tussocks which over time grow and knit into each other to form meadows....

Spodoptera littoralis

Insecta» Arthropoda» Insecta» Lepidoptera» Noctuidae» Spodoptera littoralis
It is a polyphagous adult moth up to 2 cm long with a wingspan of approximately 4 cm; fully developed larvae 35 to 45 mm long, its colour varying from grey to reddish or yellowish; eggs laid in batches covered with orange-brown hairs....

Styela clava

Tunicata» Chordata» Ascidiacea» Stolidobranchia» Styelidae» Styela clava
This Asian sea-squirt has a club-shaped body and a narrow base attaching by means of a membranous plate. The outer surface (test) is leathery and often wrinkled. Surfaces are often fouled. It is a filter-feeder occurring mainly in sheltered estuaries...

Tamias sibiricus

Mammalia» Chordata» Mammalia» Rodentia» Sciuridae» Tamias sibiricus
A small, diurnal and omnivorous terrestrial squirrel (~100g) living exclusively in forests. Its fur is characterised by 5 longitudinal black dorsal stripes. It inhabits and reproduces in a burrow where it hibernates from October-November to March-Apr...

Teredo navalis

Mollusca» Mollusca» Bivalvia» Myoida» Teredinidae» Teredo navalis
This mollusc has a wormlike, elongated body and two small shells at the anterior body end acting as wood-boring organ. Larvae are planktotrophic and adults are herbivorous suspension feeders. Individuals are found completely embedded in wood, which i...

Threskiornis aethiopicus

Aves» Chordata» Aves» Ciconiiformes» Threskiornithidae» Threskiornis aethiopicus
This large white bird (around 1.4 kg) has a black head and neck. It is mostly found in wet areas in meadows and inland wetlands to coastal areas, and is gregarious, often forming large groups. It is carnivorous with a tendency to omnivory. The diet i...

Trachemys scripta

Reptilia» Chordata» Reptilia» Testudines» Emydidae» Trachemys scripta
A medium to large (20-60 cm) freshwater turtle characterised by prominent yellow to red patches on each side of the head, typically red on T. scripta elegans, the most commonly traded subspecies of the 15 described. Carapace and skin are olive...

Tricellaria inopinata

Ectoprocta» Bryozoa» Gymnolaemata» Cheilostomata» Scrupocellariidae» Tricellaria inopinata
A robust opportunistic bryozoan, capable of enduring a wide spectrum of temperatures and salinities, as well as high organic content. Settles on a wide range of anthropogenic and natural substrata....

Undaria pinnatifida

Other algae» Heterokontophyta» Phaeophyceae» Laminariales» Alariaceae» Undaria pinnatifida
This marine brown alga grows on hard substrates and reaches up to 3 m in length (sporophyte stage). ...


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