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Sunday, October 10, 2010

Submersible Aircraft, Submersible Spacecraft, Nanotechnology Skin, Plasma Gun

DARPA’S Submersible Aircraft  program , which began in 2008 and continues its development in 2010, will combine the speed and range of an airborne platform with the stealth of an underwater vehicle by developing a vessel that can both fly and submerge.

The project will exploit lightweight materials, unique dynamic structures and advanced propulsion systems to overcome the technical barriers to achieving this capability. If successful, the project will enable insertion and extraction of special operations and expeditionary forces at greater ranges, and higher speeds, in locations not previously accessible; with minimal direct support from additional military assets. The program goals are to demonstrate a vessel capable of multimodal operations (airborne, surface, and submerged) and that can easily transition between these modes.
darpa submersible aircraft

The Submersible Aircraft program is designed to explore the possibility of developing a single platform that is capable of both flying through the air and submerging below the water. The difficulty with developing such a platform arises from the diametrically opposed requirements that exist for an airplane and a submarine. While the primary goal for airplane designers is to try and minimize weight, a submarine must be extremely heavy in order to submerge underwater. In addition, the flow conditions for a submarine and an airplane are different, due to the order of magnitude difference in the densities of air and water.

Platform velocities vary considerably as well and there are also significant differences in the design constraints that arise from the two radically different loading modes that need to be supported by the structural systems. An airplane's structure acts as a pressure vessel and as such the required skin thickness is relatively narrow, while a submarine is required to withstand enormous crushing loads and consequently the required skin thickness is an order of magnitude larger.

Structural systems represent one third of the total platform weight for both submersible and aircraft platforms. However, the weight of a submarine’s structure precludes the possibility of flight. The geometry requirements for lifting surfaces capable of operating in air and water have different design drivers. The lifting surfaces on a submarine are small appendages that are placed in such a manner that they are always submerged even when the submarine is surfaced.

 In contrast, the wings on an amphibious aircraft are placed high on the structure to minimize any potential contact with the water. Finally the power plants of submarines and aircraft have radically different densities. Aircraft engines are relatively light weight because they operate in an environment were there is plenty of available oxidizer. Submarine power plants on the other hand must rely on a snorkel or be air independent and therefore must either carry their oxidizer or use batteries or nuclear power, neither of which
is particularly light weight.


Underwater Spacecraft
Gary Richard Gochnour (US)  in U.S. Patent Application 20100243816 reveals an  aircraft also called a spacecraft, an aerospace craft, and a submersible craft. Below if figure #1 in Gochnour's patent application showing a lenticular craft.  
Source: Gochnour Patent Application 20100243816


The invention relates to a plasma based aircraft maintained in a flight mode by rotating plasma vortices located above and beneath said aircraft. Said aircraft is comprised of chromium steel, or higher ferrochromium steel can be used. Said aircraft receives energy from aircraft produced plasma obtained from the atmosphere. Produced energy is stored within craft oscillatory circuit and plasma vortices. When energy from craft capacitance system is depleting, energy can be obtained from craft inductance system from craft magnetic field. Said craft is capable of space flight, use as a submersible craft, boring device, or lifting device.

Gary Richard Gochnour  also reveals particle propulsion in space will be accomplished utilizing metal ions stored within craft capacitor plates. Said craft is opaque to electromagnetic radiation, and also absorbs radiation directed at craft. Said craft is capable of verticle ascent, descent and landing, and is lenticular in shape. Said aircraft can operate within earth radiation belts safely.

Gary Richard Gochnour in United States Patent Application 20100243796 details a plasma gun system utilizing an aerospace craftThis invention relates to a plasma gun utilized in a plasma based aircraft maintained in a flight mode by rotating plasma vortices located above and beneath said aircraft. Plasma produced by aircraft is utilized by said plasma gun to facilitate initial take off of craft, and also to accelerate aircraft speed, or, within an emergency, as needed. Said aircraft can also eject plasma through aircraft central shaft or within any direction from sides of said craft, for escape, evasion or normal accelerated flight. Preferred embodiment for said plasma gun, is a coaxial plasma gun, utilizing the large capacitance potential of aircraft, the large supply of aircraft produced plasma off said capacitors, or from uninsulated conducting wires, and also utilizing the strong Lorentz force existing within craft. The plasma produced by ionization within craft strong magnetic field, will enable this craft to rapidly avoid impediments to flight, or oncoming dangers.

FIG. 9A shown is a cutaway top view of aircraft with a plasma gun ejecting plasma toward the rear of craft. Craft will be propelled in direction of arrows.
Underwater Jet
Robert Erik Grip (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA) divulges in United States Patent Application 20100200689 an aircraft comprising a fuselage, a vessel associated with the fuselage, a propulsion system associated with the fuselage, and a lift system. The vessel is capable of storing a pressurized gas compressed to a density that allows the aircraft to operate under water. The lift system is capable of providing the aircraft lift to fly in air.

The disclosure are directed to airfoils and hydrofoils, and systems using the same, in which fluid-contacting structures (e.g., wings, fins, etc.) have a surface texture defined by fractal geometries. By inclusion of the fractal-based textures or shapes, reduced drag and increased maneuverability can be provided.

Nanotechnology Skin
Alexander J. Shelman-Cohen  in U.S. Patent Application 20100219296 details raised portions or fractal bumps can be included on the surfaces, forming a surface texture. The surface textures can be defined by two-dimensional fractal shapes, partial two-dimensional fractal shapes, non-contiguous fractal shapes, three-dimensional fractal objects, and partial three-dimensional fractal objects. The surfaces can include indents or depressions having fractal geometries. The indents can have varying depths and can be bordered by other indents, or bumps, or smooth portions of the airfoil or hydrofoil structure. The fractal surface textures can reduce vortices inherent from airfoil and hydrofoil structures. The roughness and distribution of the fractal surface textures reduce the vortices, improving laminar flow characteristics and at the same time reducing drag. The systems are passive and do not require applied power.

Airfoil and hydrofoils systems with structures having a surface texture defined by fractal geometries are described. Raised portions or fractal bumps can be included on the surfaces, forming a surface texture. The surface textures can be defined by two-dimensional fractal shapes, partial two-dimensional fractal shapes, non-contiguous fractal shapes, three-dimensional fractal objects, and partial three-dimensional fractal objects. The surfaces can include indents having fractal geometries. The indents can have varying depths and can be bordered by other indents, or bumps, or smooth portions of the airfoil or hydrofoil structure. The fractal surface textures can reduce vortices inherent from airfoil and hydrofoil structures. The roughness and distribution of the fractal surface textures reduce the vortices, improving laminar flow characteristics and at the same time reducing drag. The systems are passive and do not require applied power.


There are numerous reference to "submersible aircraft" in patents and patent applications at the U.S. Patent Office, some may be fanciful and some may be more practical in pursuit of a flying submarine.        


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