Within the fire community it has long been an accepted fact that the health hazard from fire smoke is due mainly to its content of CO. Lately, this scenario has also come to include hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Isocyanates have also become the subject of focus as they are used for manufacturing polyurethanes and frequently used for manufacturing glues and lacquers. Isocyanates are known to induce asthma in people exposed to even relatively small amount.
Conventional dry chemical systems for fire suppression have involved the use of pressurized containers including various dry compounds such as ammonium phosphate, ammonium sulfate, calcium carbonate, magnesium aluminosilicate, mono ammonium phosphate, sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, and muscovite mica. However, these systems at best are only marginally effective at smoke removal and do not address the hazards presented by fire-produced toxic compounds.
Therefore, say the inventors, there is a real an unfulfilled need in the art for methods of smoke-clearing, fire suppression, flame retardancy and sorption of toxic chemicals produced by fires and industrial processes.
In another aspect, the present method of removing toxic materials formed by a fire consists essentially of dispersing a quantity of nanocrystalline particles in the area for sorbing at least one toxic material formed by the fire.
Flame retardant composites can be made by incorporating into the article a quantity of flame retardant nanocrystalline particles.
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